OSCILLATIONS IN CANCER THERAPY

 


               

Invited paper to Int'l Symposium on New Energy,

Denver April 16-18, 1993,

sponsored by Int'l Association for New Science,

Fort Collins CO 80524.

 

 

KEY WORDS:

CANCER THERAPY
CARCINOGENESIS
MAGNETIC THERAPY
ONCOGENESIS
CELL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
PAPPAS PULSED MAGNETIC FIELDS
CELL MITOSIS
ELECTROMAGNETIC THERAPY
CELL ENERGY
 
 

 EFFECTS OF PULSED MAGNETIC FIELD  OSCILLATIONS IN CANCER THERAPY

 by

 Panos T. Pappas, Ph.D.*  and  Charles Wallach, Ph.D.**

http://www.papimi.gr/

 

Abstract

 It has been discovered that the effects on tumor cells of a novel method of producing extremely sharp pulses of very high-intensity magnetic field oscillations that has consistently proven more efficacious in tumor cell destruction than similar therapeutic modalities using lower power density. It appears that this observed phenomenon results from inducing an increase in characteristically low tumor cell membrane potential that inhibits mitosis and consequently causes cell death from aging and/or starvation.  The importance of this discovery warrants a systematic clinical study as outlined in Appendix A.

Background

 Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (1960) wrote "The living cell is essentially an electrical device..." in which the membrane with its oscillatory pumping function appears to be the generator, fueled by AMP.  Nearly a decade later (1968) he also observed, "Cancer [instead of being regarded as a hostile intruder] might be looked upon also as a cell in trouble, which needs help to return to normal."  Viewing the cell membrane as an electrical generator, it is clear that potential it develops is a measure of its efficiency and operating condition.


*Professor of Physics and Mathematics, Pireaus Technical University, Athens, Greece
**Director, Center for Understanding, Research & Education
 in Medicine, Canoga Park CA 91304
 The Pappas Magnetic Induction Generator (MIG) developed by Panos T. Pappas (1992) represents the latest generation of advanced electro-therapeutic devices using high-frequency, pulsed, electric, magnetic and/or electromagnetic fields to non-invasively excite biological cells and tissues.  The MIG is unique in the manner in which it produces very high energy, short, sharp-edged pulses of UHF magnetic-field oscillations at a flux density orders of magnitude greater than similar devices in current use.

 In experimenting with resonant circuits containing physical discontinuities over the past ten years (Pappas, 1990a/b) it was found that easily variable, transient, magnetic oscillations produced in the plasma vector of a shock-excited "unclosed" circuit and applied non-invasively to or through body surfaces in localized areas, appeared to have unique effects on tumor cell reproduction and angiogenesis, resulting in their destruction.  This appears to hold true whether the origin of the tumor was induced by a virus or a carcinogen.

 The proliferation of reports in the medical literature over the past half century related to the biological effects of static and especially pulsed fields (electric, magnetic and electromagnetic) appear to present a paradoxical picture in which various of these modalities have been shown to:

kill tumor cells
revitalize sick or injured cells
significantly accelerate healing of soft and hard tissues
destroy infectious microorganisms

 At first glance, it is difficult to rationalize how such stimuli could produce cell death on the one hand, and cell regeneration on the other.  However, as energy loss and ATP production, both of which are interactively and proportionally linked to TMP, it seems reasonable to suppose that an increase in TMP would not only restore homeostasis to cells in which a toxin, infection or injury has lowered their energy resources (Cove, 1990), but also provide the necessary stimulus for new-cell differentiation in the process of tissue repair (Becker, 1974).

 On close consideration of these factors, it becomes apparent that metabolic processes directly related to cell membrane potential (and its effect on the energy resources of the cell) may be the common link between these phenomena.

 In support of this hypothesis, it has been shown that, properly applied, these various exogenic stimuli are capable of increasing transmembrane potential (TMP) to or toward an optimum value and energy level of a healthy cell.  This is considered to be the key factor, and the efficacy of MIG irradiation suggests that it is the extraordinarily high field intensity which accounts for its much higher rate of success when compared with that of similar devices in current use.

Discussion

 Transmembrane potential (TMP) is defined as the electrical potential between the negative interior of the cell membrane and plasma environment (due to the presence of negative ions), with respect to the less negative or more positive potential of the exterior of the cell membrane and its tangential environment due to the presence of positive ions (Cone, 1985).
 
 In a normal, healthy, mitotically quiescent cell, the inner surface of the membrane is on the order of 50 to 60 mv more negative than its outer surface, and the TMP is therefore taken to be -50 to -60 mv within a relatively small margin; in this condition, the cell is said to be highly polarized (Cone, 1985).
 
 As the cell ages, sickens, starves or grows to a point where the membrane becomes progressively thinner, the TMP drops below the normal range (the membrane gradually becomes depolarized) and ATP production is reduced accordingly.  When the TMP falls to circa -15 mv, mitosis is triggered and the cell divides (Cone, 1970).  This endogenic phenomenon is naturally characteristic of the life cycle of normal cells; but when such depolarization is brought about by exogenic factors, mitosis is induced prematurely and uncontrolled proliferation results in the growth of a tumor (Cone, 1971).
 
 Premature depolarization and mitosis leading to carcinogenesis may obtain from either a sustained increase in the intracellular concentration of Na+ ions (Cone, 1970 and 1974), or a surplus of negative ions (such as certain acid molecules bound to saccharides on the external wall of the cell membrane (Cure, 1992), or both (Cure, 1976).

 In the latter case of carcinogenesis caused by surplus nega- tive charges bound to the exterior of the membrane, a secondary effect may be postulated: since these charges would form a negative field or sheath around the cell, this would tend to repel negatively charged erythrocytes and lymphocytes, preventing the immune system from destroying the tumor cells (Cure, 1992).
 
 In either case, granting the validity of the respective premises, it is apparent that irradiation by pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) generates an alternating current across the cell membrane that is incrementally rectified by the nonlinear impedence of the membrane, such that the exterior becomes more positive than the interior.
 
 Other significant aspects of PMF therapy to be considered in this context are:

- its synergistic effect when combined with antitumor  chemotherapy as reported by Sersa (1992), (Omote, 1988),  (Nordenstrom, 1990).

- According to Cure (1976) the unique cause of oncogenesis is  membrane depolarization by an excess of negative charges on  the external surface of a cell due to an accumulation of  amino and ribonucleic acids.

- Becker (1974) reported on reduction of carcinomas and other  cancerous tumors by neutralizing excess negative ions with a  positive potential applied to the tumor mass.

- Nordenstrom (1990) and Marino (1986) reported similar tumor  mass reduction in the forty percentiles with similar  techniques.

 Over the past century, various forms of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic stimulation have been used efficaciously to slow, retard, and even completely dissipate tumor growths.  The literature reflects that:

  • direct current applied to the tumor mass is somewhat  effective alone, and more so in combination with chemotherapy, but does not appear to be an ideal modality.
  • certain frequencies of RF electromagnetic excitation  selected for their thermal effects on the tumor mass are also useful where effective, but do not appear to be an ideal modality.
  • pulsed electric field irradiation may have some therapeutic  effects on superficial tumor cells, but the depth of penetration is limited; pulsed electric fields applied to deeper tumor masses may involve the hazard of disturbing the heart rhythm unless synchronized with the normal R-wave (Fansan, 1992).
  • many references in the current literature strongly indicate  that prolonged exposure to sinusoidal magnetic fields can promote oncogenesis, especially in small children.

 Before discussing the efficacy of pulsed magnetic fields in this context, it should be pointed out that all of the above electrotherapeutic modalities are directed at the tumor mass, and their effects on individual interior and exterior tumor cells may vary throughout the mass with uncontrolled variables in the tumor environment.

 On the other hand, due to uniform penetration characteristics, a rapidly changing (oscillating) magnetic field should have an equal effect on every cell within the tumor mass.  What is that effect?  It is axiomatic that a moving magnetic field will induce a current in a conductive medium.  The conductive medium in this context is the tumor cell, and particularly the polarized cell membrane through which ion exchange is constantly occurring.

 The stimulus of an oscillating magnetic field will cause current to flow in alternating directions through the conductive cell membrane and interstitial fluids, thus generating an exogenically induced alternating potential across the membrane.  A single magnetic oscillation cycle, with equal bidirectional current flow, would cause no net change in TMP.

 However, the cell membrane presents a non-linear impedance to current flow, and there is a finite time constant involved in the opening and closing of ion gates; thus when rapid magnetic field oscillations occur at a sufficiently high frequency, the potential or charge across the membrane induced by the outward-flowing current does not have time to leak off before the next cycle begins.  This results in the cumulative rectification of small increments of negative potential on the interior surface of the membrane, and a net increase in TMP.

 By driving the TMP well above the critical point where mitosis is triggered, the reproduction of a tumor cell is inhibited; this phenomenon is well supported by clinical and in vitro observations.  It is further postulated that in driving the outer surface of the membrane more positive, the tumor cell becomes more accessible to immunological defense mechanisms (Cure, 1992).
 
 The Pappas Magnetic Induction Generator (MIG) appears to excite the individual cells within the tumor mass more effectively than other electrotherapeutic modalities because of its larger flux density (orders of magnitude greater than similar devices in current use) and/or its higher frequency spectrum.

 In addition to its ability to inhibit cancer cell reproduction as described above, in a statistically significant number of clinical cases over the past year, MIG irradiation has also been shown to destroy infectious microorganisms in vivo (Wallach, 1993).  This phenomenon becomes even more significant in view of the fact that cancer growth may be triggered either by a carcinogens (chemical or ionizing radiation) (Adams, 1986) or by a virus.

 In 1966 Payton Rous was awarded the Nobel prize for his 1911 discovery of the carcinogenic Rous virus.  Subsequently, the Rous "virus" was found to be a pleomorphic form of bacterium producing both DNA and RNA by Mattman (1974), Livingston (1984) and others who demonstrated that infectious bacteria not only contained parasitic viruses, but were capable of metamorphosing into viral forms with changes in electrical and/or culture environment.
 

A new hypothesis:  Energy deficiency and cancer

 Cancer is a general phenomenon found in the entire spectrum of living organisms, and its derivatives have been found even in viruses.  The fact that carcinogenesis relates to particular energy changes in the cell suggests that an energy resource deficiency may be the central carcinogenic mechanism.

 This hypothesis offers a new explanation, and suggests methods for the prevention and cure of cancer based on the direct application of high amplitude, plasma-generated pulses of UHF oscillations to cancer cells, and is supported by clinical observations of satisfactory results obtained from this application.

 References to the relationship of cell energy level and cancer are found throughout the literature; however, it is believed that this may be the first definition and characterization of cancer cells as cells with low internal energy.  We base this on the development of a device that, in supplying electrical energy at a cellular level, has been seen to diminish and even to calcify cancer tumors of nearly all types.

 When a cell becomes cancerous, the following facts relating to the internal energy of the cell are observed (Yunis, 1983), (Sheer, 1986), (Dimdi, 1985), (Papaspyrou, 1991):

a) The number of mitochondria is diminished, thus reducing the
 activity and energy level of the cell (Deroberts, 1980a).

b) The ATP-producing function of oxidation-phosphorylation is
 diminished, causing further reduction in available energy  (Deroberts, 1980b).

c) Anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) increases, acquiring a
 smaller number of ATP molecules, resulting in limited energy  production and reduced thermal energy (Deroberts, 1980b).

d) The internal level of Na+ ions is increased relative to the
 K+ ions, with a twofold result (Apell, 1989), (Nieto- Frausto, 1992), (Schwarz, 1991):

 1)  Na+ has a large tendency for hydration; one Na+ ion can    bind at least one H2O molecule, and water displaces internal  thermal energy to the outside (Sturmer, 1991).

 2)  High internal Na+ concentrations relative to external K+   concentration impairs the efficiency of the Na/K pump that  exchanges three internal Na+ ions with two external K+ ions.

 Although all four of these phenomena may be interrelated (Szent-Gyorgyi, 1976), they have in common the effect of reducing the internal energy resources of the cancer cell.  In case d(2) above, this is more evident because, according to Goldman's equation (Moore, 1972), high internal Na+ concentration causes a drop in transmembrane potential from a normal healthy cell potential on the order of -50 to -70 mv to a typical cancer cell potential on the order of -15mf (Cone, 1974, 1985).

 A cell with such low transmembrane potential might be compared to a dying battery; according to the Goldman formula (Moore, 1972) the energy level of such a typical cancer cell is less than 5% of that of a normal, healthy cell and thus clearly fits the characterization of the energy resource deficiency hypothesis.
 Conclusions

 It is convincingly evident from clinical trials that Pappas Magnetic Induction Generator (MIG) has significantly important therapeutic applications in:

  • Reduction of tumor cells
  • Apparent destruction of AIDS retrovirus and other infectious
     microorganisms

 There remains to test our basic hypothesis of tumor cell destruction and to further investigate the precise mechanisms through which these phenomena are mediated, as outlined in the Research Proposal in Appendix A.

 

 

References

 

Adams, G. E., (1986), Radiation Carcinogenesis, Introduction to the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer, Eds: L. M. Franks and Teich, Oxford Univ Press pp 277-305
Apell, H. J., (1989), Electrogenic Properties of the Na/K pump, J Membrane Biol 110(2):103-14, Medline 90040665
Becker, R. O. et al, (1974), The Role of Electrical Potential at the Cellular Level in Growth and Development, Ann NY Acad Sci 238:451-7, Medline 75071505
Cone, C. D., (1985), Transmembrane Potentials, CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 117
Cone, C. D., (1971), Unified Theory on the Basic Mechanism of Normal Mitotic Control in Oncogenesis, J Theor Biology, 30:151-81
Cone, C. D. Jr., (1974), The Role of Surface Electrical Transmembrane Potential in Normal and Malignant Mitogenesis, Ann NY Acad Sci 238:420-35, Medline 75071502
Cone, C. D. Jr., (1970) Variation of the Transmembrane Potential Level as a Basic Mechanism of Mitosis Control, Oncology, 24(6):438-70, Medline 71087791
Cove, G., (1990), Membrane Electrostatics, Biochim Biophys Acta 103(3):311-82, Medline 91027827
Cure, J. C. (1992), Cancer: An Electrical Phenomenon, The Human Dimensions Institute
Cure, J. C. (1976), Sialic Acids, Chemistry, Metabolism and Function, Eds. A. Rosenberg and C-L Schengrund, Plenum Press NY
Deroberts, E. D. P., (1980a) Cell and Molecular Biol, pp 427-29
Deroberts, E. D. P., (1980b) ibid p 757
Dimdi, L. J., (1985), Physical Mechanism of the Activation of Oncogenes, Prog Clin Biol Res 172:343-56, IMD 8505
Fansan, Zhu et al, (1992), Development and application Research for Instrument of R-Wave Synchronizing Electric Pulses [in] Treatment for Cancer, Dept Bioengineering, Huazhong Univ of Science and Tech, Wuhan, China
Livingston, V. and E. G. Addeo, (1984) The Conquest of Cancer, Franklin Watts Publisher
Marino, A. A. et al, (1986), Electrical Treatment of Lewis Carcinoma in Mice, J Surg Res 41:198-201
Mattman, L. H., (1974), Cell Wall Deficient Forms, CRC Press, Cleveland
Moore, W. K., (1972), Physical Chemistry, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NY
Nieto-Frausto, J., P. Luger and H. J. Apell (1992), Electrostatic Coupling of Ion Pumps, Biophys J 61(1):83-95, Medline 92173097
Nordenstrom, B. (1983), Biologically Closed Electric Circuits, Nordic Medical Publications, Stockholm
Nordenstrom, B. et al, (1990), I. Electrochemical Treatment of Cancer; II. Effect of Electrophoretic Influence on Adriamycin, Am J Clin Oncology 13:75-88
Omote, Y., (1988), Experimental Attempt to Potentiate Therapeutic Effects of Combined Use of Pulsating Magnetic Fields and Antitumor Agents, J Jap Surg Soc 89(8):1155-66
Pappas, P.T. (1992), current patents: USA 5,068,039; OBI 1000007 & 1000093; OBI patents pending 92010030.9 & 8900016.3
Pappas, P.T. (1990a) Proc Int'l Tesla Symposium, Colorado Springs
Pappas, P.T. (1990b), On the Ampere Electrodynamics and Relativity, Physics Essays, 3/3:211
Pappaspyrou, S. D. et al, (1991), Energy and Cancer, Physicos Cosmos 131:9-11
Schwartz, W. and L. A. Viselets, (1991), Variations in Voltage-dependent Stimulation of the Na/K pump in Xenopus Oocytes by External Potassium, Soc Gen Physiol Ser 46:327-38, Medline 91368231
Sersa, G. et al, (1992), Anti-tumor Effect of Electrotherapy Alone or in Combination with Interleukin-2 in Mice with Sarcoma and Melanoma Tumors, Anti-Cancer Drugs 3:253-60
Sheer, D., (1986), Chromosomes and Cancer, Intro to Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer, Eds: Franks & Teich, pp 225-45, Oxford University Press
Sturmer, W. et al, (1991), Charge Translocation by the Na,K-Pump, J Membrane Biol, 121(2):141-61 and 163-76, Medline 91350166 and 91350167
Szent-Gyorgyi, A., (1976), Electronic Biology, Marcel Dekker NY
Szent-Gyorgyi, A., (1968), Bioelectronics, Academic Press NY
Szent-Gyorgyi, A., (1960), Introduction to Submolecular Biology, Academic Press NY
Wallach, C., (1993), unpublished reports of rapid elimination of pneumocystis Carinii, Kaposi's sarcoma, intestinal bacterial infections and the killing of other infectious microorganisms by MIG irradiation treatments at the International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles
Yunis, J. J., (1983), Chromosomal Basis of Human Neoplasia, SCIENCE 227-35

 

| Home |         Back |